School counselors work with students as advocates as well as to foster their personal, social, academic, and career development by establishing realistic goals. Counselors help students choose colleges or technical schools, as well as assist with applications, exams, and career planning. College counselors may assist students with major planning and career development.
Education administrators provide leadership as well as manage the daily activities in schools of all levels, from preschools to colleges. They establish policy and procedures to meet curriculum standards and general goals. They also supervise school faculty and employees, train teachers, develop programs, ensure academic progress, prepare budgets, and handle public relations.
Elementary school teachers work with students in grades 1-5 and generally teach one group of students a broad range of subjects, though some elementary teachers specialize in one area, such as reading, math, art, or music.
Kindergarten teachers instruct students in numbers, science, letter recognition, and phonics, and employ play, games, and other methods to provide students general academic awareness.
School librarians, often referred to as school media specialists, work with teachers to prepare materials for use in the classroom and curriculum development. They also sometimes teach.
Middle school teachers work with students in grades 6-8, while secondary teachers work with students in grades 9-12. Middle and secondary teachers specialize in a subject area, such as:
- Arts - Specializations in art, music, or theater
- English/Language arts
- Foreign languages
- Physical education/Health
- Science - Specific specializations might include earth science, biology, chemistry, or physics
- Social studies - Specializations may include United States or world history and geography
Post-secondary teachers cover a wide range of subjects leading to advanced degrees and/or personal development opportunities in colleges, universities, vocational/technical institutions, and professional schools. They also may perform research and consulting services, as well as supervise the work of teaching assistants and graduate students.
Preschool teachers work with children to enhance their vocabulary and language development and social skills. They also introduce ideas of science and math and encourage creative activities and play.
Special education teachers work with children who have disabilities and modify curricula to meet the individual needs of students.
Teaching assistants, also called teacher aides, paraeducators, paraprofessionals, or instructional aides, support classroom teachers by providing individual tutoring to students, recording grades, preparing instructional materials, and handling equipment.
Vocational teachers provide specialized instruction in career fields, such as technology, business, autos, and healthcare.